The Sumerian city-states rose to power during the prehistoric Ubaid and Uruk periods. Sumerian written history reaches back to the 27th century BC and before, but the historical record remains obscure until the Early Dynastic III period, c. the 23rd century BC, when a now deciphered syllabary writing system was developed, which has allowed archaeologists to read contemporary records and inscriptions. Classical Sumer ends with the rise of the Akkadian Empire in the 23rd century BC. Following the Gutian period, there is a brief Sumerian Renaissance in the 21st century BC, cut short in the 20th century BC by Semitic Amorite invasions. The Amorite “dynasty of Isin” persisted until c. 1700 BC, when Mesopotamia was united under Babylonian rule. The Sumerians were eventually absorbed into the Akkadian (Assyro-Babylonian) population.
- Ubaid period: 5300 – 4100 BC (Pottery Neolithic to Chalcolithic)
- Uruk period: 4100 – 2900 BC (Late Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age I)
- Uruk XIV-V: 4100 – 3300 BC
- Uruk IV period: 3300 – 3100 BC
- Jemdet Nasr period (Uruk III): 3100 – 2900 BC
- Early Dynastic period (Early Bronze Age II-IV)
- Early Dynastic I period: 2900–2800 BC
- Early Dynastic II period: 2800–2600 BC (Gilgamesh)
- Early Dynastic IIIa period: 2600–2500 BC
- Early Dynastic IIIb period: c. 2500–2334 BC
- Akkadian Empire period: c. 2334–2218 BC (Sargon)
- Gutian period: c. 2218–2047 BC (Early Bronze Age IV)
- Ur III period: c. 2047–1940 BC
Zechariah Sitchin (the most important proponent of the ancient astronauts hypothesis, which father is Erich von Denizen)
Sitchin attributes the creation of the ancient Sumerian culture to the Anunnaki, which he states was a race of extraterrestrials from a planet beyond Neptune called Nibiru. He believed this hypothetical planet of Nibiru to be in an elongated, elliptical orbit in the Earth‘s own Solar System, asserting that Sumerian mythology reflects this.
Taking the words of Sumerian myth as fact, because they showed a coherent narrative about the true origins of humanity and civilisation, Sitchin detailed how humanity arose after the arrival of the Anunnaki (“those who from Heaven to Earth came”). A race of alien “gods” who created modern man in their own image and imparted gifts of civilising knowledge.
Still, according to his read of the Sumerian clay tablets, Sitchin traced their civilisation as far as 400.000 years ago (which is about the period when the Homo neanderthalensis appeared), categorising t in two kings reign periods, the kings before the Flood (very long lived):
Alorus who ruled in Heaven for 162,000 years, from about 433517 to 271517 BCE.
Alulim(Eridug) 28,800 years
Alaljar(Eridug) 36,000 years
Dumuzid(Bad-Tibia)36,000 years and so on… (have a read here for more),
and the kings after the flood* (30.000 BC) who still ruled for hundreds of year (but look prematurely dead compare to their predecessors).
So, of course, in this translation, the kings appears to have supernatural characteristics but don’t focus on this since we don’t actually know who or what was actually depicted. Just keep it in mind as this is the foundation of many alternative to the official story of humanity.
* this is not actually the biblical flood, which might have taken place around 12.500BC.