First, the wild wheat was crossed with an herb from natural pasture, and fourteen of one chromosomes were combined with the other fourteen to produce a new plant, more robust, with twenty-eight chromosomes. Then, in a short time, the hybrid plant was again crossed with another “pasture grass” to create a plant with much larger ears, with 42 chromosomes.
Finally, there was a third mutation. One of the forty-two chromosomes underwent a mutation. If this had not happened, the wheat we know today, the first peasants who fed Armenians and all their successors, never would exist. The fact that these combinations and genetic alterations have happened all by chance, in a rather short period, is contrary to all the laws of probability. And if that were not enough, it comes under another favorable element. Unlike other wild herbs that existed before, the single grain of wheat is too heavy to be carried by the wind, and thus provide the spontaneous reproduction. The reproduction of the plant must be practiced artificially, otherwise the plant would not survive and would disappear soon. This comes supported by science historian Jacob Bronowski, “through a happy combination of natural and human events” (and it is supposed that humankind same just then appearing on the world scene), it was discovered “accidentally” hybrid wheat plant, and it was discovered that, among the approximately 195,000 species of existing plants in the Middle East, just this was worthy of cultivation, and the man provident its spread at a critical time, collecting and sowing the seeds to grow it personally. It is just pure luck, to the nth degree! It appears much more likely to argue that the wheat was instead the product of a targeted development of the prehistoric period, from the beginning of his genetic creation. This of course presupposes that the first farmers of the Neolithic period, in the Middle East, possessed a knowledge of genetics and Mendel intersections comparable to that which we possess today. If the wheat was the only plant to suffer sudden generic mutations, it would be miraculous enough. However, in that same period occurred in the world other sudden and important botanical mutations. The chromosomes of bananas and apples were multiplied by factors of two and three, while peanuts, potatoes, tobacco and other plants expanded with a factor of four times. The sugar cane was inexplicably altered by an ancestor of today’s 10 chromosomes to complex plant, which has 80 chromosomes. Every indication points to lead one to suppose that important genetic experiments were taking place all over the world at a specific time of the prehistoric times. Researchers and developers of modern agriculture admit, about the sudden advent of modern nutritional cereal, that thousands of generations of genetic selection would be needed to get even a modest degree of such an important development. We have yet to identify with certainty the duration required by the nature to get to complete spontaneously such selections. There are no explanations for these miraculous creations botanical, unless the process that occurred was not a natural selection, but the product of artificial manipulations. Karl F. Kohlenberg, in his study on the history of the development of the corn crop, said these words with its dependency on man: “What distinguishes the corn plant from all other types of grain crops is its high biological fragility. Left to itself, he would die in a short time. Its seeds are so tight and solid under their casing that no wind might spread them. If by chance an ear of corn would end abandoned on the ground, the seeds produce a myriad of plants, that could never grow normally, tight against each other. ” Again, as for wheat, it does not seem that alteration of corn up to its current forms and action by farmers to propagate it at a critical time in its evolution, they can be separated and viewed as a fluke. The tremendous difficulties currently encountered to produce a genetic hybrid of success has been demonstrated by the Botanical Garden of St. Petersburg, in Russia, where, since 1837, botanists have tried to cultivate a wild form of rye to make it develop in a new domestic genre. The results were disappointing and the characteristic fragility of the ear of wild rye; with its small grains, remain together with the weakness of the stems and roots. If these obstacles are difficult to overcome in the modern experts, as they could make the Neolithic farmers of ten thousand years ago, to Grow the cereal species that have come down to us? Wheat and other cereals were first produced in the Middle East, while corn was grown originally in the New World. Both of those areas were also centers of a considerable number of other foods “highly evolved”. In the Middle East, the beginning of agriculture saw the rapid rise of millet, spelled, flax, grapes, apples, pears, olives, lentils, peas, figs, almonds, pistachios, hazelnuts and there were rapid quality adjustments all of these plants. In the same period, in the New World they developed a wide variety of pumpkins, pepper, beans, potatoes and cotton. In some cases, it seems that there was an active exchange of genetic material between the two areas. For example, the first cotton varieties known in the Americas contained thirteen small chromosomes, while the corresponding Old World species, grown in India, had thirteen large chromosomes. In the cotton remains excavated in the early stages at Huaca Prieta in Peru, dating from around 2500 BC, have been identified thirteen small and thirteen large chromosomes. In other words, the Peruvian cotton was a hybrid between the eastern and western species. Orthodox historians have tried to explain this hybridization as a natural phenomenon, “accidental,” but the hypothesis has not been very successful. The cotton plant is too gentle, both to the state of seed, both during growth, for being simply transported from one hemisphere to the other by the sea currents, the migrations of birds or by the winds. In addition, the cotton transportation explanation from the Old World to Peru is only half the problem. The other involves the propagation of the two forms in a common form. Not only plants, but also the animals may have been the product of manipulation and genetic selection. It is noteworthy that in the same era in the Middle East, the advent of grains and highly developed fruit coincided with the appearance of dogs, horses, sheep, goats, pigs and other livestock domesticated. Around the same time, in the Far East, along with the advent of rice plants and soy genetically improved, they appeared domestic ducks and poultry and the water buffalo. In India, during the same period prehistoric, proto-Harappan culture of the Indus River valley was practicing their trials. The wheat used by Harappans was very developed. It grows even today in the Punjab, even around fields planted with lower quality grain. The same can be said for the breeding of animals. Zoologists who examined the Harappan seals and other works of art have noted the use of hybrid cattle images, highly specialized, that no longer exists. The Harappans also bred dogs and sheep, and domesticated the elephant, and perhaps even the rhinoceros (something which today is considered impossible). With the domestication of animals we face a very different level of problems, compared to that of genetic modification of plants. Conduct a wolf cub to become a dog in a human community, or put the wild cattle in a pen and be able to turn it into a milk-producing animal species, not only involves a change of form, but a real change in the characteristics nature, a complete denial of the semi-wild instincts to turn them into a docile nature. This implied a genetic manipulation of very complex nature, based on the control of behavioral genes. In the 1920s and 1930s, the Russian botanist Nicolai Vavilov founded 400 botanical research institutions through the Soviet Union and organized dozens of expeditions around the world, to gather 50,000 wild flora samples with the original germplasm of seeds. Through this extensive research, Vavilov was the first to be able to conclude that most of today’s cereals stems concretely eight major and some smaller centers, in support, and that all worked in the past in a specific period. Later, in 1971, another scientist, Jack Harlan, adjourned the work of Vavilov, and in 1992 extended its research further, suggesting the existence of what ch called “global biomes,” or areas that had both forms of flora, and fauna, which had suffered in passoto a specific domestication mutation. Building on this, the most recent research has found that the windows of time, correlated with the locations and with the manipulations of the kinds of plants and animals, are very revealing. Here is a summary of the most important of these discoveries:
* 8000 BC-Iran, Syria, Israel-chickpeas, lentils, figs, dates, grapes, lettuce, almonds, olives, carrots
* 7500 BC-South America-beans, pumpkin, cassava
* 7000 BC-Asia S.Orient., New Guinea taro root, peas, mung beans, citrus fruits, bananas, coconuts, sugar cane
* 7000 BC-Syria-sheep, goats
* 7000 BC-China-rice, water buffalo, millet, soybeans, cabbage
* 6500 BC-India-watermelons, eggplants, peas “pigeon”, Asian Cotton (Eastern)
* 6500 BC-Turkey-pigs, cattle
* 6000 BC-Peru-corn, potatoes, peanuts, cotton in (Western)
* 6000 BC-Central America – corn, squash, beans, pepper and hot pepper, tomato
* 6000 BC-Africa-sorgho, peas “cow”, cassava, melon, okra
It is truly remarkable that, although the locations indicated are very distant and scattered around the world, all groups of plants originating and animals were created, and had become totally dependent, by the direct intervention of imani farmers, and at the same (short) period of only two thousand years. Of great significance is the fact that the virtual explosion of sustainable forms of life, radically different, appeared everywhere at the beginning of the Neolithic period, did not know before, and from that time away has never been repeated, even with the current progress biochemistry and genetic engineering. These revelations raise the question of whether those prehistoric regions they had been chosen and prepared earlier, on purpose. And also, if the manipulations were practiced in the same age so deliberately planned and carried out by a single group, spread all over the world, of unknown genetic pioneers, whose wisdom was superior, ten thousand years ago than today.
The bovine genome reveals genetic manipulation by man, made 10,000 years ago
[Washington Post, 28/4/2009, David Brown, “Cow’s DNA Shows Human Influence”]
“A group of hundreds of scientists, which operates in more than a dozen countries, has published the entire sequence of the DNA-genome-d’una breeding cow Herford 8 years old, who lives in an experimental farm Montana. “Among its approximately 22000 genes it is hidden traces of how natural selection has sculpted the body and the personality of the cattle in the past 60 million years and how much will be further developed over the past 10,000 years. ” ‘There are traces of human work in the bovine genome? The answer is definitely, without a doubt, positive, said Harris Lewin of bilogia Genome, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. He is the author of one of three papers on the cow genome, published in the journal Science. “The genome of the cow was the first of which we have identified the sequence, including all farmed livestock.”
-Note-What other genetic manipulation will find the scientists, when they draw up the genome sequence of other species of farmed animals? …
There was a “genetic convergence” primitive?
In November 2009, geneticists around the world have announced that after years of intensive collaboration, had finished mapping the complete genome of corn, and have published a dozen scientific articles on the subject. Their studies reveal that at various times in the past of corn, there have been unusual “operations on evolutionary mechanical” and “genes” that some researchers are finding is difficult to explain without assuming a clever manipulation. The genome sequence shows that an astonishing 85 percent of the approximately 32,000 genes of maize are made of “transposable elements” -o “genes Salterini” -and that would put in evidence the fact that they have been set in motion and moved in the 10 chromosomes of corn, throughout history, and mostly in the last 10,000 years. The fact that not one of these thin transmutations has resulted in a fatal genetic meltdown, with the consequent extinction of ancient plant-but rather significant and positive reinforcements have been obtained in the work uninterrupted growth and reseeding, by far higher than natural selection could have allowed-is powerful evidence that someone, long ago, he predicted the end product and manipulated as a result the plant. They have also been found indicaioni that in another part of the development process of the corn are intevenute actions of intelligence even older. About 5 million years ago, for example, suddenly it came the important merger between two ancestral species imparentalte, which gave the species resulting corn a strong heritage of new genetic possibilities, in order to survive and adapt to various environments. Significantly, this real process of fusion took place around the time they were changed also other plants and were even certain mammals, descendants of those who had been domesticated, and even a number of primitive hominids. In other words, as was a convergence of genetic mutations about 10,000 years ago, which gave birth to our foods today’s “tame”, there would be a similar convergence of genetic manipulation in a very early period, 5 million years ago? Various archeological and paleontological discoveries “out of place” reveal that certainly existed some form of life with human-like intelligence, in such a very remote period. Would these men, of a civilization unknown to us, also responsible for the genetic modification of livestock and the flora and fauna of that distant era? The continuation of the genome mapping and further research on all the genetic sequences not yet studied, in a wide variety of species, living and extinct, may one day give us the answer we seek.